The situation: Brazil, March 15th 2018...There has been an increase in reported cases of yellow fever, particularly in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais.
Yellow fever is an acute viral disease that is spread to humans via infected mosquitos. It is endemic in tropical areas of Africa and Latin America.
Symptoms of yellow fever usually appear 3 to 6 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. In the initial phase, they include fever, muscle pain, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. For most patients, these symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 days. However, 15% of patients enter a second, more toxic phase, when high fever returns, and several body systems are affected, including the kidneys.
There is no cure for yellow fever and treatment is based on symptom management.
Travelling to Brazil?
See a health professional at least four to six weeks before you travel, to find out about yellow fever and other recommended vaccinations for the area(s) that you plan to visit.
Bear in mind that Rio de Janeiro state authorities recommend that all visitors to the state, including to the island of Ilha Grande, are vaccinated against yellow fever.
You can find out more about vaccination requirements for Brazil from the National Travel Health Network and Centre: https://travelhealthpro.org.uk/country/34/brazil#Vaccine_recommendations
Once in Brazil, avoid mosquito bites both day and night by using a DEET-based insect repellent, covering up exposed areas with clothes and screening windows.
If you’re travelling (or have travelled) to an area in which yellow fever is a risk, seek immediate medical advice if you have symptoms of the disease.
Advice from the World Health Organisation
Vaccination is the single most important measure for preventing yellow fever.
The vaccine has been used for many decades and is safe and affordable, providing effective immunity against yellow fever within 10 days for more than 90% of people vaccinated and within 30 days for 99% of people vaccinated.
A single dose provides lifelong protection.
Travellers with children below 9 months, pregnant or breastfeeding women and people with severe hypersensitivity to egg antigens, and severe immunodeficiency, or over 60 years of age, should consult their health professional for advice.